Specific Learning Disabilities (LD)

A term for a wide variety of learning problems referring to difficulties learning and using academic skills. LD is not a problem with intelligence or motivation. Children with LD aren’t lazy or dumb. The difference is how they receive and process information. LD can lead to trouble with learning new information and skills, and putting them to use. The most common types of LD involve problems with reading, writing, math, reasoning, listening, and speaking.

Motor disorders:

Developmental coordination disorder: the acquisition and execution of coordinated motor skills is substantially below that expected given the child’s chronological age and opportunity for skill learning and use.

Stereotypic movement disorder: repetitive, seemingly driven, and apparently purposeless motor behavior, eg hand shaking or waving, body rocking, head banging.

Tic disorder: A tic is a sudden, rapid, recurrent, non-rhythmic, motor movement or vocalization. The body moves repeatedly, quickly, suddenly and uncontrollably. Any part of the body- face, shoulders, hands or legs can be affected. It can present as eye blinking, nose twitching, tooth clicking, sticking out the tongue or hand clapping for motor tics, while Vocal Tics may come as grunting, sniffing, barking or throat clearing.

Tics can be suppressed but not indefinitely. Stress exercabates tic, which diminishes during sleep and when the person is engaged in an absorbing activity.

Tourett’s disorder refers to a chronic motor or tic disorder.

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