Language Disorder: The difficulties with expressive language interfere with academic or occupational achievement or with social communication.
Speech sound disorder: This is the failure to use developmentally expected speech sounds that are appropriate for the individuals age and dialect. It is characterized by errors in sound production, omissions, substitutions of one sound for another (Use T for K), and distortions of speech sounds. In phonological disorder, the speech sounds that are most frequently misarticulated are those that tend to be acquired last in the normal language acquisition process (e.g. sounds represented by the letters S, Z, sh, ch, dg, th, dz and r).
Causes can be hearing impairment, structural deficits of the oral peripheral speech mechanism (cleft palate), neurological disorders (cerebral palsy) cognitive limitations (ID) and psychosocial deprivation.
Treatment: A child needs speech therapy where speech intelligibility is poor. In a child older than 8 years, the articulation problem is apparently contributing to or causing problems with peers, self-image or learning. The articulation impairment is severe. Therefore, peer relationships, school behaviors and learning process has to be monitored.
Stuttering: Disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual’s age. Frequent repetitions/ prolongations of sounds or syllables Interjections, broken words (pauses within a word), audible/silent blocking, circumlocutions (word substitutions to avoid problematic words). Words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions (I-I-I-I- see)